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Outcome data reported in:

Lorig K, Sobel D, Stewart A, Brown Jr B, Ritter P, González V, Laurent D, Holman H. Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing utilization and costs: A randomized trial. Medical Care, 37(1):5-14, 1999.

Lorig K, Ritter P, Stewart A, Sobel D, Brown B, Bandura A, González V, Laurent D, Holman H. Chronic Disease Self-Management Program: 2-Year Health Status and Health Care Utilization Outcomes. Medical Care, 39(11),1217-1223, 2001.

In HMO setting:

Lorig K, Sobel D, Ritter P, Laurent D, Hobbs M. Effect of a Self-Management Program on Patients with Chronic Disease. Effective Clinical Practice, 4(6),256-262, 2001.

Articles published between 2000 and 2006 about the Chronic Care Model:

Wagner E, Austin B, Von Korff M. Organizing Care for Patients with Chronic Illness. Milbank Q. 74(4)511-44.1996. [

Bodenheimer T, Wagner E, Grumbach K. Improving Primary Care for Patients with Chronic Illness. JAMA. 288(14)1775-9. 10/9/2002.-- Part Two. JAMA 288(15)1909-14. 10/16/2002. [
Link to Part One] [Link to Part Two]

Wagner E, Austin B, Davis C, Hindmarsh M, Schaefer J, Bonomi A. Improving Chronic Illness Care: translating evidence into action. Health Affairs. 20(6) 64-78. Nov-Dec 2001. [Link]

Wagner E. Chronic Disease Management: What will it take to improve care for chronic illness? Eff Clin Pract 1(1)2-4. Aug-Sept 1998. [Link]


Anderson, R.M., & Funnell, M.M. (2005). Patient empowerment: Reflections on the challenge of fostering the adoption of a new paradigm. Patient Education & Counseling, 57, 153-157.

Barlow, J.H., Bancroft, G.V., & Turner, A.P. (2005). Self-management training for people with chronic disease: A shared learning experience. Journal of Health Psychology, 10(6), 863-872.

Barlow, J.H., Wright, C.C., Turner, A.P., & Barcroft, G.V. (2005). A 12-month follow up study of self-management training for people with a chronic disease: Are changes maintained over time? British Journal of Health Psychology, 10(4), 589-599.

Barlow, J., Sturt, J., & Hearnshaw, H. (2002). Self-management interventions for people with chronic conditions in primary care: Examples from arthritis, asthma and diabetes. Health Education Journal, 61(4), 365-378.

Barlow, J., Wright, C., Sheasby, J., Turner, A., & Hainsworth, J. (2002). Self-management approaches for people with chronic conditions: A review. Patient Education and Counseling, 48, 177-187.

Bodenheimer, T., Lorig, K., Holman, H., & Grumbach, K. (2002). Patient self-management of chronic disease in primary care. JAMA, 288(19), 2469-2475.

The Center for the Advancement of Health. (2001). Essential elements of self-management interventions. Retrieved April 4, 2006 from

Chodosh, J., Morton, S.C., Mojica, W., Maglione, M., Suttorp, M.J., Hilton, L., Rhodes, S., & Shekelle, P. (2005). Meta-analysis: Chronic disease self-management programs for older adults. Annals of Internal Medicine, 143(6), 427-238.

Clark. N.M. (2003). Management of chronic disease by patients. Annual Review of Public Health, 24, 289-313.

Flinders Human Behaviour and Health Research Unit. (2001-2003). What is self-mangement? Retrieved May 25, 2006 from

Fu, D., Fu, H., McGowan, P, Yi-E, S., Lizhen, Z., Huiqin, Y., Jianguo, M., Shitai, Z., Yongming, D., & Shihua, W. (2003). Implementation and quantitative evaluation of Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme in Shanghai, China: Randomized controlled trial. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(3), 174-182.

Gifford, A.L., & Groessl, E.J. (2002). Chronic disease self-management and adherence to HIV medications. JAIDS, 31, 5163-5166.

Griffiths, C., Motlib, J., Azab, A., Ramsay, J., Eldridge, S., Feder, G., Khanam, R., Munni, R., Garrett, M., Turner, A., & Barlow, J. (2005). Randomised controlled trial of a lay-led self-management programme for Bangladeshi patients with chronic disease. British Journal of General Practice, 55(520), 831-837.

Groupp, E., Haas, M., Fairweather, A., Ganger, B., & Attwood, M. (2005). Recruiting seniors with chronic low back pain for a randomized controlled trial of a self-management program. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 28(2), 97-102

Haas, M., Groupp, E., Muench, J., Kraemer, D., Brummel-Smith, K, Sharma, R., Ganger, B., Attwood, M., & Fairweather, A. (2005). Chronic disease self-management program for low back pain in the elderly. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 28(4), 228-237.

Kendall, E., Catalano, T., Kuipers, P., Posner, N., Buys, N., & Charker, J. (2007). Recovery following stroke: the role of self-management education. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 735-746.

Kennedy, A., Reeves, D., Bower, P., Lee, V., Middleton, E., Richardson, G., Gardner, C., Gately, C., & Rogers, A. (2007). The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a national lay-led self care support programme for patients with long-term conditions: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial, J Epidemiol Community Health, 61(3), 254-261.

Lorig, K. (2003). Self-management education: More than a nice extra. Medical Care, 41(6), 699-701.

Lorig, K., Holman, H., Sobel, D., Stewart, A.L., Brown Jr., B.W., Ritter, P.L., Gonzalez, V.M., Laurent, D.D., & Holman, H.R. (1999). Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing utilization and costs: A randomized trial. Medical Care, 37(1), 5-14.

Lorig, K.R., Hurwicz, M., Sobel, D., Hobbs, M., & Ritter, P.L. (2004). A national dissemination of an evidence-based self-management program: A process evaluation study. Patient Education and Counseling, 59, 69-79.

Lorig, K., Ritter, P.L., & Gonzalez, V.M. (2003). Hispanic chronic disease self-management. A randomized community-based outcome trial. Nursing Research, 52(6), 361-369.

Lorig, K. (2003). Self-management education: More than a nice extra. Medical Care, 41(6), 699-701.

Lorig, K. (2006). Action planning: A call to action. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 19(3), 324-235.

Lorig, K., & Holman H. (2003). Self-management education: History, definition, outcomes and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 26(1), 1-7.

Newman, S., Steed, L., & Mulligan, K. (2004). Self-management interventions for chronic illness. Lancet, 364, 1523-1537.

Shoor, S., & Lorig, K. R. (2002). Self-care and the doctor-patient relationship. Medical Care 40(4S), II40-44.

Von Korff, M., Gruman, J., Schaefer, J., Curry, S.J., & Wagner, E.H. (1997). Collaborative management of chronic illness. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127(12), 1097-1102.

Wagner, E., Davis, C., Schaefer, J., Von Korff, M., & Austin, B. (2002). A survey of leading chronic disease management programs: Are they consistent with the literature? Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 16(2), 67-80.

Wheeler, J. (2003). Can a disease self-management program reduce health care costs? Medical Care, 41(6), 706-715

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